# The Percentage Of Completion Method & Formula Explained

Calculate the percentage of completion using the cost-to-cost method, effort-expended method or units-of-delivery method. Notice that the balances of these two accounts are equal (at \$100,000) under this method. This is because the construction account contains both cost and profit. The logic behind the percentage-of-completion method is that both the buyer and seller have obtained enforceable rights. The buyer has the right to require specific performance on the contract; the seller has the right to require progress payments.

• Under this method, the contractor pays tax when profits are earned, no matter when the contract is deemed complete.
• Discover the formula for calculating gross profit and explore some examples of gross profit calculation.
• Avoiding “phantom revenue” from this situation is one reason why it’s good they don’t record their collections as income right away.
• The completed contract method allows all revenue and expense recognition to be deferred until the completion of a contract.
• It defines small contractors as those with gross receipts not over \$25 million in the previous three years.
• Long-term contracts for services do not qualify as a long-term contract under §460.

The completion factor must be certified by an engineer or an architect, or supported by appropriate documentation. The contract price must include cost reimbursements, all agreed changes to the contract, and any retainages receivable. Retainage is the amount earned by the contractor, but retained by the customer for payment at a later date until the quality of the work can be ascertained. It is important to recognize revenues and gross profit in the period in which the activity occurred, but this in not always possible with construction contracts that take more than a year to complete. You have a construction contract worth \$4 million to be completed over 3 years. Your actual costs for the 1st year turned out to be \$300,000, which is less than 10% of the total estimated costs, so you did not report income or deduct expenses for that 1st year.

## Percentage Of Completion Method Revenue Recognition

Multiply total estimated costs by the percentage of completion, and subtract any costs you have already accounted for. You will then have the costs that can be recognized for the current accounting period. The percentage of completion formula that is used to calculate how much revenue can be recognized in a period compares the total costs to date with the total estimated costs on the project. The total percentage of costs that have been incurred is the percentage of completion for the https://online-accounting.net/ project. By deferring the recognition of revenue and expenses until the end of the project, the company might put itself at risk of higher tax liabilities. For example, let’s say a project is estimated to take three years to complete and tax laws change, leading to an increase in the business tax rate. The tax liability would be higher under the completed contract method versus using the percentage of completion approach since some of the revenue would have already been recognized.

If your company is looking to transition to percentage of completion revenue recognition, consider changing to a software package that supports it. Most commercial contractors, both general contractors and subcontractors, use the percentage of completion method to report their income.

## What Is The Difference Between Percentage Of Completion Method And Completed Contract Method?

The completed contract methodis also known as the contract completion method. It is a form of revenue recognition used for project based accounting such as construction. The completed contract method of accounting records all revenue earned on the project in the period when a project is done. From an optics perspective, this can make a company’s revenue and profitability appear inconsistent to outside investors.

Reducing the amount billed means you may not be able to cover expenses for the period, causing cash flow problems. If the amount billed to date is less than the revenue that is recognized by the percentage of completion method, that’s called underbilling. That amount is recorded as an asset, as more money is due than has been billed. This means half of the total revenue for the project can be recognized. If the contract is for \$120,000, \$60,000 can be included in the income statement. Conversely, the revenue and expense trends will be smoother under IFRS.

## Ways To Calculate The Percentage Of Completion Method

In case of long-term contracts, accountants need a basis to apportion the total contract revenue between the multiple accounting periods. Percentage of completion method provides one of those bases, other being full-contract method. The percentage of completion method is a way for companies to recognize revenue on a period by period basis during long-term contracts. Instead of accounting for all revenue and costs at the end of a project, the percentage of completion method determines revenues and costs based on how far along a project is at a specified time. A contract is assumed to be complete when the remaining costs and risks are insignificant. The percentage of completion method calculates the ongoing recognition of revenue and expenses related to longer-term projects based on the proportion of work completed.

• But when change orders are included and estimates change as the project goes along, the calculations can become fairly complicated.
• Do describe everything that the method does that is relevant to the caller.
• Assuming that \$55,000 of revenue was recognized from previous periods, then the current period revenue is \$20,000.
• Percentage completion method for recognising revenue, costs and profits from transactions and activities of real estate which have the same economic substance as construction contracts.
• Cash Collected is the amount of money StrongBridges Ltd. received for the construction of the bridge.

If the contractor follows this method for all his projects, he gets a better picture of his profits & his analysis will be based on real-time figures. These adjustments ensure that the income shown on the income statement is reflective of the percentage of completion method. Waiting until the end of a project makes the accounting easier but means that a contractor’s income will seem unsteady and irregular, since projects end at different times. A contractor may go a month or two with no projects ending, meaning they essentially have no income to report. The company obtained a building construction contract worth Rp400 for two years. Assume, the company incurs a cost of Rp220 in the first year and Rp80 in the second year. An adjusting journal entry occurs at the end of a reporting period to record any unrecognized income or expenses for the period.

Other types of construction contracts qualify for the completed contract method if they satisfy the general CCM requirements. To record construction costs, debit construction in process and credit A/P or cash. To record billings to the customer, debit contracts receivable, an accounts receivable asset and credit progress billings, a contra-asset account that offsets construction in process. To employ the PCM, a contract must describe how to determine a “completion completed contract method formula factor” that determines how much income the contractor has earned up to that point. The revenues earned and the costs of these revenues are equal to the completion factor times the total contract revenues and costs, respectively. GAAP doesn’t permit a contractor to determine revenue based on cash receipts. First, take an estimated percentage of how close the project is to being completed by taking the cost to date for the project over the total estimated cost.

## What Are Some Examples Of A Deferred Tax Liability?

Results analysis was developed for companies with long-term projects/orders. Normally projects/orders are regarded as long-term if it takes more than one year to complete. For controlling requirements or for balance sheet purposes , such objects need to be valuated at regular intervals . With large quantities of objects, for mid-year statements, or for the requirements of Controlling, however, results analysis for objects with shorter life cycles may be required. With this method, any business won’t have to worry about having accounting periods where no revenue is recognized . This is in contrast to the usual method of revenue recognition which only recognizes revenue when the service is completed. Under the percentage of completion method, revenue is recognized in each period that the project/contract is live.

• Total estimated expenditures for the contract represent the total budgeted cost for the project.
• Total contract value is the total revenue from the long-term contract.
• Under US GAAP and IFRS, companies can use this method when results cannot be measured reliably.
• In this method, the completion factor equals the project costs already incurred divided by the total estimated project costs.
• For the CCM method the planned data is not relevant for the RA calculation, but only object’s system status and actual postings.
• Using the completed contract method, the taxpayer does not recognize revenue until the contract is completed and accepted by the customer.

Any differences between calculated results and the postings previously reported in FI can be posted automatically. Subtract your estimated costs from your contract price to find estimated gross profit. In the example, \$200,000 minus \$150,000 equals estimated gross profit of \$50,000.

The amount of revenue to be recognized is based on how far along the project is from its completion. There is a specific method of revenue recognition that applies to such cases.

One of the most common is the sales-based method, where the entirety of the revenue is recognized as soon as the sale is complete. For a retail company, this would be the moment a customer decides to make a purchase, since all the work on the product has already been completed. For a hospitality company, revenue isn’t recognized until the guest stays at the property, even if a reservation and a deposit had been made months in advance. The completed contract method has certain advantages for some contractors. If a project won’t be completed until the following year, the company won’t have to pay tax on that revenue this year. Under Sec. 460, taxpayers with long-term construction contracts must generally use the percentage-of-completion method to determine their reportable income. To determine the percentage of completion for a project, divide current costs by total costs, and multiply by 100.

## When Can You Use Completed Contract Method?

IAS 11 Construction Contracts provides requirements on the allocation of contract revenue and contract costs to accounting periods in which construction work is performed. Percentage of completion method is a basis for revenue recognition in long-term construction contracts which span over more than one accounting periods.

The IRS sees many abuses in this area, where either construction contracts are improperly classified as home construction contracts or the date of completion is extended by contrivance. Therefore, the contractors argue, the construction of any one home is not complete until all the common improvements have been finished. However, the IRS is taking the position that a home construction contract is considered completed when it is sold. Under this method of accounting, apportionable income derived from long-term contracts is reported for the taxable year in which the contract is finally completed and accepted.

## When Can Completed Contract Method Be Used?

Multiply your percent complete by your estimated gross profit to find your construction in progress. This percentage of completion method recognizes revenue and income related to long-term projects. The justification relies on the matching principle in accounting, where revenues and expenses are matched in the applicable accounting period. The importance of the percentage of completion method is to create a better measure of actual revenue earned and costs incurred on long-term projects. Using the percentage of completion method also divides tax obligations over several periods or years rather than accumulating a large tax burden at the end of a major contract.

## What Is An Overbilling And How Is It Used In Percentage Of Completion Accounting?

Thus the facts seem to indicate that a continuous “sale” is in progress. IRS has allowed two situations wherein the contractor can prefer the completed contract method. Only after the customer has approved the contract, contractor records the accounting in its books of accounts. Dawn Killough is a construction writer with over 20 years of experience with construction payments, from the perspectives of subcontractors and general contractors.